Romans 1

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page on that site.

1Paul, a slave of Christ Jesussome manuscripts: Jesus Christ, a called(invited) apostle having been set apart into [the] gospel of God,a 2whoi.e., God promised before[of his own free will] implied by verb in many cases through his prophets in holy writingsb 3about his son, the one having been born out of a seed of Davidc according to flesh,d 4the one having been (ordained / determined / separated / demarcated) [as] a son of God in power according to a spirit of holiness out of a resurrection of [the] dead,e Jesus Christ our lord, 5through whom we took(seized) grace and a send-off(apostleship) into obedience of faithf in all the company [called] by the holy name,g 6in which [company] you also are called bylit. of Jesus Christ, 7to all the [ones] being in Romeomitted in a few manuscripts beloved bylit. of God, called holy,h grace to you and peace from God your father and [from] [the] lord Jesus Christ.i

8First, on the one hand, [I] am thankful to my God through Jesus Christ about all of you that your faith is being (proclaimed / declared / recounted) in all the world(the whole world). 9For God is my witness,j whomi.e., God [I] serve in my spirit(breath) in the gospel of his son, how incessantly [I] make (remembrance / mention / commemoration) of you,k 10andadverbial ἐπί, lit. as well always [that God is] lacking not at all in my prayers, [and that] [now is the time]lit. already sometime; cf. Liddell-Scott-Jones definition II of ἤδη [I] will succeedlit. have a prosperous journey or be helped en route in the will of God to come to you.l 11 For [I] desire besides to see you, in order that [I] may give some share of spiritual grace to you toward your being supportedlit. affixed [on a particular occasion], 12and this [action] is to be exhorted together in you through the in-each-other faith, both yours and mine. 13And [I] am not willingsome manuscripts: [we] are not willing; others: [I] do not (intend / think) to ignore you, brothers, because [I] often set out [on particular occasions] to come to you, and [I] was prevented(hindered) [on particular occasions] even up to nowlit. hitherto, in order that [I] may have [on a particular occasion] some fruitm also in you just aslit. both in you and just as in the remaining company. 14[I] am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to wise [men] and to unthinkinglit. thoughtless [men], 15 thus [it is] an eager [thing] forlit. concerning me to preach the gospel to you also, the ones in Romeomitted in a few manuscripts.

16For [I] am not ashamed at the gospel,n for [the] power of God is forlit. into salvation for everyone who believeslit. believing,o both Jewish first and Greek.p 17For [the] righteousness of God in him is made known(uncovered) out of faith into faith,q just as it is written,rBut the righteous [man] out of faithalmost definitely modifies both δίκαιος and ζήσεται will live.”s

18For the wrath of God is made known(uncovered) from [the] sky(heaven) upon every impiety and injustice of men,t those [men] (holding fast / occupying / detaining) the truth in injustice,u 19because the knowable [thing] of God is visible in them; for God made it visible(revealed it) to them.v 20For the unseen ideas(thoughts about) of him are perceived from [the] founding of [the] cosmos [in] the works [in the cosmos]interpolation; implied; which others of God’s works would Paul be referring to?, and his eternal power and divinity,w so that they are (inexcusable / undefended)lit. unapologized-for, 21because knowing God, [they] did not [on any particular occasion] honorlit. think of [God] as God or give thanks, but [they] brought [him] to naught in their calculations and their witless heart was darkened(blinded).x 22Claiming to belit. saying [that they] are wise, [they] were made foolsy 23and [they] exchangedhere, and repeated numerously after, lit. altered the glorylit. expectation / notion of the indestructible(incorruptible) God in [the] likeness of [the] image of destructible(corruptible)This kind of parallelism is common in Biblical texts. Also consider Genesis 1; this passage indicates a reversal of God’s creation of Man. man and of flyingnote the progression from the “image of man” to weaker and weaker animals, which are more and more associated with the devil [animals] and of four-footed [animals] and of beasts [that creep]cp. ἑρπετῶν with herpetology, i.e., the study of reptiles.z

24Whereforethe first crime was heresy, paganism, and then later debauchery; cp. to Sodom & Gomorrah, whose first and most significant crime was against hospitality, but they had become just as Paul is describing certain sinners in his day God has given them over in the desires of their hearts into [the] uncleanness of dishonoring their bodies in them,aa 25whoever exchanged [on a particular occasion] the truth of God in the falsehood,ab [they] both worshipedlit. feared and servedlit. were enslaved to the [thing] createdIn Greek, verbs and sentences are constructed such that indirect objects of verbs in the dative case, like this one, are almost exclusively people, not things. Paul is using this grammatical construction to reinforce the unnatural manner in which we worship things instead of their in place of the [one] creating, who is blessed into the ages, 26On account of this, God has given them over into passionslit. happenings of (disgrace / dishonor), for both their females exchanged [on a particular occasion] the natural use into the [use] contrary to nature, 27and likewise the males, sending away the natural use of(intimacy with) the female, inflamedlit. burned out; the verb later came to mean (re)kindled, since any time a candle burned out, it needed to be relit [themselves] in their longing for each other, males among males, working at the obscenity and the disgrace, [and with] them seizing which, there was need of their wandering(going astray).ae 28And just as [they] did not think it fit(refused); lit. did not try to hold God in recognition, God has given them over into a (disreputable / reprobate) mind,cf. v.25: “worshiped and were enslaved”; here, they set their minds on this path and are now impelled along it [so] to do the [things] not proper, 29[the ones] having been filled with every injustice, wickedness, greediness, badnessmanuscript variations:
* badness, wickedness, greediness
* wickedness, badness
* badness, fornication, greediness
* fornication, greediness, badness
* fornication, wickedness, greediness, badness
* badness, fornication, wickedness, greediness
* wickedness, fornication
* wickedness, greediness
, [the ones] full of ill-will, murder, strife, treacherylit. bait, malignity, slander(falsehood), 30[the ones that are] slanderers, hated of the gods, (insolent / wanton / licentious), arrogantlit. over-bright, braggartslit. vagrants, contrivers of bad things, disobedient to [their] parentslit. fathers, 31witless, faithless, heartlesslit. without natural affection, mercilesssome manuscripts add prior: implacable; 32whoever, observing the ordinances(judgments) of God, [which ordinances state] that the [ones] practicing [things] such as these are deemed worthy of death, not only [whoever] does these [things], but also [whoever] gives their consent to the [ones] practicing [these things].

a having been set…gospel of God: cf. Acts 9:15; 13:2; Galatians 1:15
b verse 2: cf. Romans 16:25-26; Titus 1:2
c the one having…seed of David: cf. Matthew 22:42; II Timothy 2:8
d according to flesh: cf. Romans 9:5
e the one having…of [the] dead: cf. Acts 13:33
f obedience of faith: cf. Romans 16:26
g verse 5: cf. Acts 26:16-18; Romans 15:18; Galatians 2:7, 9
h called holy: cf. I Corinthians 1:2; II Corinthians 1:1
i grace to you…lord Jesus Christ: cf. Numbers 6:25-26; I Corinthians 1:3; II Corinthians 1:2
j For God is my witness: cf. Philippians 1:8; I Thessalonians 2:5, 10
k how incessantly [I]…commemoration) of you: cf. Ephesians 1:16
l lacking not at…come to you: cf. Acts 19:21; Romans 15:23, 32
m [I] may have…occasion] some fruit: cf. John 15:16
n For [I] am…at the gospel: cf. Psalm 119:46; Mark 8:38
o for [the] power…everyone who believes: cf. I Corinthians 1:18, 24
p both Jewish first and Greek: cf. Acts 13:46
q For [the] righteousness…faith into faith: cf. Romans 3:21-22
r written: i.e., in Habakkuk 2:4
s But the righteous…faith will live: cf. Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38
t For the wrath…injustice of men: cf. Ephesians 5:6; Colossians 3:6
u those [men] (holding…truth in injustice: cf. II Thessalonians 2:12
v verse 19: cf. Acts 14:15-17; 17:24-28
w For the unseen…power and divinity: cf. Job 12:7-9; Psalm 19:1
x [they] brought [him]…heart was darkened: cp. verb ἐματαιώθησαν to Jeremiah 23:16; cf. Ephesians 4:17-18
y verse 22: cf. Jeremiah 10:14; I Corinthians 1:20
z verse 23: cf. Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Psalm 106:20
aa verse 24: cf. Acts 14:16
ab whoever exchanged [on…in the falsehood: cf. Jeremiah 13:25; 16:19
ac served the [thing] created: cf. John 8:34; Romans 16
ad the [one] creating…the ages, amen: cf. Romans 9:5
ae verse 27: cf. Leviticus 18:22; 20:13; I Corinthians 6:9