Romans 11

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page on that site.

1[I] say therefore, God did not push away his people,some manuscripts: inheritance [did he]? Would that it not come to be; for also I am an Israelite, out of [the seed] of Abraham, of [the] tribe of Benjamin.a 2God did not push away his people,b whom [he] foreknew. Or do [you] not know in Elijah, what the writing says, how [he] meets with God against(concerning) Israel? 3“Lord, [they] killed your prophets, [they] razedThe etymology of this word evokes an image of tearing something to the ground and then digging up its foundation. your altars, and I alone was left remaining and [they] seek my life.”c 4But what does the decree(oracle / negotiation) say to him? [I]or [they] left seven thousand men for myself, whoever did not bend [the] knee to Baal.”d 5Therefore thus also in the now-time(present) a remnant has come about according to a choice of grace;e 6but if by grace,Because no verb is supplied, one must be assumed; we may think ἐκλογέω (choose, from ἐκλογὴν in v5) or καταλιμπάνω (leave behind, from κατέλιπον in v4); in either case, the usage is probably the instrumental dative (the dative of means), specifically as a standard of judgment. no longer out of works, for otherwise grace becomes grace no longer.some manuscripts add: for otherwise the work is no longer a work; others: but if out of works, [it] is no longer grace, for otherwise the work is no longer a workf 7What therefore? What Israel was seeking, [she] did not attain,here and elsewhere, (reach) but the choiceHere and in verses 5, 28, not those chosen, but the act of choosing attained [it];g but the remaining [ones] were petrified,(hardened) 8just as [it] has been written, “God gave to them a spirit of bewilderment, eyes not to see,here and in the next clause, as well as in verse 10, are articular infinitives of negative purpose ears not to hear, until the today-day.”h 9And David says, “Let their table become [on a particular occasion] a trap and a hunt and a snare(scandal) and a repayment to them, 10let their eyes be made dark not to seei and their back [be made] bent [down] through everything.”j

11[I] say therefore, [they] did not stumble in order to fall,ἵνα + subjunctive purpose clause [did they]? Would that it not come to be; but the salvation for their blunder [was given] to the peopleshere and throughout, (nations)k in order to provoke them to jealousy.articular infinitive of purpose with εἰςl 12But if their blunder [is the] wealth of [the] cosmos and their loss [is the] wealth of [the] peoples, how much more their fulfilment [is wealth].

13But [I] say to you, to the peoples: therefore, for as much as I am an apostle of peoples, [I] magnify my service, 14if in some way [I] shall provoke my flesh to jealousy, [I] will also save some oflit. out of them. 15For if their rejection [is the] reconciliation of the cosmos, what [is their] acquisition if not life out of [the] dead [ones]? 16And if the firstling [is] holy, also the [whole] mixture [is];m and if the root [is] holy, also the branches [are].

17But if some of the branches were completely broken off [on a particular occasion], but thou, being a wild olive, were graftedhere and throughout, lit. pricked / stuck in among them and, partaking of the root of the fattinesssome manuscripts: of the root; others: of the fattiness; others: of the root and of the fattiness [thou] came to beThis verb could go with any of the genitives (of-phrases) in this verse, just as “partaking” can; though I have rendered it the most sensible way in English, it can mean that by partaking of all these things, you become of them all. of the olive tree,n 18do not boast over the branches; but if [thou] boast, thou do not lift up the root, but the root [lifts] thee [up].o 19Therefore [thou] will say, “Branches were completely broken off in order that I may be grafted in.” 20Wonderful; [they] were completely broken off by [their] disbelief,here and throughout, (lack of faith) but thou have stood by [thy] belief.(faith) Do not be high-minded,lit. think high [things]p but fear;(be afraid) 21for if God did not spare the [ones who were] branches according to their nature,here and throughout, lit. origin neither will [he] spare thee, {not in any way}.some manuscripts omit these words; their presence is still disputed 22Behold, therefore, [the] goodnesshere and throughout, (kindness) and severity of God; on the one hand, severity upon the [ones] having fallen [on a particular occasion], but on the other, [the] goodness of God upon thee, if [thou] remain in the goodness;r otherwise thou also will be cut out.q 23But also those [men], if [they] do not remain in disbelief, [they] will be grafted in; for God is ablelit. powerful to graft them in again. 24For if thou were cut out of the wild olive, [the one] according to [thy] nature, and [thou] were grafted against [thy] nature into the garden olive, by how much more will these, the [ones] according to [their] nature, be grafted in the same olive tree.some manuscripts end this verse as a question

25For [I] do not wish you to miss,(be ignorant of / not perceive) brothers, this mystery, in order that [you] may not be wise {among}some manuscripts use a different word to mean the same thing; others: with respect to yourselves,s because hardness from heritage comes about for Israel to the uttermost where the fulfilment of the peoples came int 26and thus all Israel will be saved,u just as [it] has been written, “The [one] rescuing will have come out of Zion, [he] will turn back impieties from Jacob. 27And this [is] the covenant from me for them, v that [I] take away their errors.”w 28On the one hand, according to the gospel [they are] hated throughhere and in the next clause, (because of) you, but on the other hand, according to the choice [they are] beloved through the fathers; 29for the graces and the calling of God [are] not to be repented of.(repentant) 30For just as you were disobedient to God then, but now [you] have been shown mercy for the disobedience of these [men], 31thus also these [men] now were disobedient for your mercy, in order that [they] themselves also may {now}some manuscripts: afterward; others omit; the presence of this word is disputed be shown mercy. 32For God enclosed all [men] into disobedience in order that [he] might show mercy to all [men].x

33O [the] depth of wealth of both wisdom and knowledge of God; how unexaminable [are] his judgments and inscrutable [are] his ways.y 34“For who knew [the] mind of [the] lord? Or who became his counselor?z 35Or who has prepaid him and will be repaid by him?”aa 36Because out of him and thorugh him and unto him [are] all [things];ab to him [be] the glory unto the ages, amen.

a I am an…tribe of Benjamin: cf. Philippians 3:5
b God did not…away his people: cf. I Samuel 12:22; Psalm 94:14
c verse 3: 1 Kings 19:10, 14
d [I] left seven…knee to Baal: 1 Kings 19:18
e verse 5: cf. Romans 9:27
f verse 6: cf. Galatians 3:18
g What Israel was…choice attained [it]: cf. Romans 9:31
h God gave to…until the today-day: Deuteronomy 29:4; Isaiah 29:10
i Let their table…not to see: cf. Psalm 69:22-23
j their back [be…[down] through everything: cf. Psalm 35:8
k the salvation for…to the peoples: cf. Acts 13:46
l in order to…them to jealousy: cf. Deuteronomy 32:21; Romans 10:19
m And if the…[whole] mixture [is]: cf. Numbers 15:17-21; Nehemiah 10:37; Ezekiel 44:30
n verse 17: cf. Ephesians 2:11-19
o thou do not…[lifts] thee [up]: cf. John 4:22
p Do not be high-minded: cf. Romans 12:16
q verse 22: cf. John 15:2, 4
r if [thou] remain…in the goodness: cf. Hebrews 3:14
s in order that…wise {among} yourselves: cf. Romans 12:16
t the fulfilment of…peoples came in: cf. Luke 21:24; John 10:16
u all Israel will be saved: cf. Matthew 23:39
v The one rescuing…me for them: Isaiah 59:20-21; cf. Psalm 14:7
w that [I] take…away their errors: cf. Isaiah 27:9; Jeremiah 31:33-34
x verse 32: cf. Galatians 3:22; I Timothy 2:4
y inscrutable [are] his ways: cf. Isaiah 45:15; 55:8
z verse 34: cf. Isaiah 40:13 (LXX); Job 15:8; Jeremiah 23:18; I Corinthians 2:16
aa verse 35: cf. Job 41:3
ab out of him…[are] all [things]: cf. I Corinthians 8:6

Romans 10

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page on that site.

1Brothers, the good will of my heart and the petition of God over them [is]some manuscripts: over them is; others: over Israel is until salvation. 2For [I] witness to them that [they] have jealousy(zeal) of God,a but not according to(in accordance with) knowledge; 3for, not perceiving the justice of God and seeking to stand up their own {justice}, [they] were not obedient tolit. placed under the justice of God;b 4for the end of the law [is] Christ unto justice for everyone believing.c

5For Moses writes on justice, the [justice] fromhere and in verse 6, lit. out of the law, that the man having done them [the things of the law] will live in them.d 6But the justice from faith says thus, Do not sayThis is a prohibitive subjunctive; it’s typical for negative commands, rather than the imperative; literally, this is more like, “May you not say!” but still carries the weight of a command. in thy heart, ‘Who will go up into the sky?'” that is, to bring Christ down, 7or, “‘Who will go down into the abyss?'” that is, to bring Christ up out of [the] dead. 8But what does [it] say? “The sayinghere and throughout, (word) is near to thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart,”e that is, the saying of faith which [we] proclaim. 9Because if [thou] agreehere and in verse 10, lit. are of the same mind or thinking in thy mouth that Jesus [is] lord and [thou] believe that God raised him out of [the] dead, [thou] will be saved; 10for [it] is believed by heart unto justice and [it] is agreed by mouth unto salvation. 11For the writing says, everyone “believing upon him will not be dishonored.”f 12For there is not a separation both of Jew and of Greek,g for he himself [is] lord of all, being wealthy unto all the [ones] calling upon him; 13for “everyone who calls upon the name of the lord will be saved.”h

14How therefore would [they] call upon [him] in whom [they] did not believe? And how would [they] believe [in him] of whom [they] did not hear? And how would [they] hear apart from [one] proclaiming [it]? 15And how would [they] proclaim [it] if [they] were not sent?Of the possible words St. Paul could have used, this one is directly derivative of the root of our word apostle. Thus, only those given authority from God (through the Church) should go out and preach, not just anyone with a Bible. (Compare the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8:27-39.) Just as [it] is written, “How timely [are] the feetsome manuscripts add of the [ones] bringing the good news of peace of the [ones] bringing good news.”lit. bringing good [things] as good news or bringing the good news of good [things]i 16But not all [men] listened to the gospel. For Isaiah says, “Lord, who believed our tidings?”j 17Then faith [comes] out of tidings,k and tidings through the saying of Christ.some manuscripts: of God; others omit 18But [I] say, [they] did not hear, did they? On the contrary,See the note on this same phrase in Romans 9:20. “Their voice went out into all the earth and their sayings into the ends of the inhabited world.”l 19But [I] say, Israel did not know, did they? First Moses says, “I will provoke you to jealousy upon [one who is] not a nation, and upon a witless(unintelligible) nation [I] will provoke you to anger.”m 20And Isaiah makes a bold venture and says, “[They] were found {among} the [ones] not seeking me; [I] became manifest to the [ones] not consulting me.”n 21But to Israel [I] say, “For the whole day [I] spread out my hands to a people refusing and contradicting [me].”o

a [they] have jealousy of God: cf. Acts 22:3
b verse 3: cf. Romans 9:31-32
c verse 4: cf. Matthew 5:17; John 3:18; Hebrews 8:13
d the man having…live in them: Leviticus 18:5; cf. Galatians 3:12
e Do not say…in thy heart: Deuteronomy 9:4; 30:12-14
f believing upon him…not be dishonored: Isaiah 28:16; cf. Romans 9:33
g For there is…and of Greek: cf. Acts 10:34; 15:9
h everyone who calls…will be saved: Joel 2:32
i How timely [are]…bringing good news: Isaiah 52:7; cf. Nahum 1:15; Ephesians 6:15
j Lord, who believed our tidings: Isaiah 53:1; cf. John 12:38
k faith [comes] out of tidings: cf. John 17:20
l Their voice went…the inhabited world: Psalm 19:4
m I will provoke…you to anger: Deuteronomy 32:21
n [They] were found…not consulting me: Isaiah 65:1
o For the whole…and contradicting [me]: Isaiah 65:2 (Septuagint)

Romans 9

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page on that site.

1[I] speak truth in Christ, [I] do not lie,(am not lying) with my consciousness witnessinggenitive absolute with me in [the] holy spirit, 2that there is for me a great painlit. a pain of the body, fig. a pain of the mind and an incessant griefsynonymous with “pain” earlier in the sentence, but tends to be used figuratively more often, hence it is rendered grief here for my heart. 3For [I] was praying to be a curse, I myself [was praying to be] away from Christ on behalf oflit. over my brothers, the [ones] akin according to flesh,a 4whoever are Israelites, of whom [there is] the adoption as sonsb and the glory and the covenantssome manuscripts: the covenant and the legislationor adoption of laws; possible play on words with υἱοθεσία (adoption as sons) above and the service and the announcements,here and in verses 8-9, (promises); compare this word, ἐπαγγελία, with ἄγγελος, hence we get “angel” 5of whom [there are] the fathers and out of whom [came] Christ according to the flesh,c the [one] being upon alld God blessed unto the ages,esome manuscripts: the [one] being over all. Blessed [be] God unto the ages; others: the [one] being God over all. Blessed [be he] unto the ages amen.

6But [it is] not, as it were, that the word has fallen from God.(the word of God has fallen)f For not all the [ones] [coming] out of Israel, these [are not] Israel;g 7nor that all children of Abraham are a seed [of Abraham], but, “In Isaac a seed will be called for you.”h 8That is, not the children of flesh, [not] these [are] children of God, but the children of the announcement are counted(reckoned) unto a seed.i 9For the word of announcement [is] this, “At this time [I] will come and a son will be with Sarah.”j 10But not only [this], but also Rebekah bearing out of one marriage-bed of our father Isaac,k 11for with [the child/ren]No mention has yet been made of there being twins; as someone familiar with the Old Testament, we know that Rebekah had twins, and Paul will get to that momentarily, but the point is that, at this stage of the story, Rebekah did not know–and so he does not mention it, even though we already know it. This is first-century irony. not yet being born nor doing anything good or petty, in order that the public notice(purpose) of God according to choice might remain, 12not out of works but out of the [one] calling, [it] was said to her that, “The greater will be enslaved to the smaller,”l 13just as [it] has been written, “Jacob [I] loved,from ἀγάπη but Esau [I] hated.”m

14What therefore shall [we] say? [There is] not injustice with God, [is there]? Would that it not come to be.n 15For [he] says to Moses, “[I] will show mercy to whomever [I] show mercy and [I] will have pity on whomever [I] have pity.”o 16Then, therefore, [it is] not of the [one] wishing nor of the [one] running,These participles (“wishing” and “running”) are frequently translated as modifying some noun “man” or “person,” but that word does not appear. The participles modify “God,” and so may apply to him (i.e.,[it is] not of [God] wishing or of [God] running, but of God showing mercy), but they may also be acting substantively (as I have rendered it). The text itself does not suggest one or the other is more correct. but of God showing mercy. 17For the writingi.e., Scripture says to Pharaoh, “Unto this [thing] itself [I] awakened thee(raised thee / stood thee up) [on a particular occasion] in order thatboth purpose clauses are formed from ὅπως + subjunctive [I] might exhibit in thee my power and in order that my name might be proclaimed [on a particular occasion] in all the earth.”p 18Then, therefore, on whom [he] wishes, [he] has mercy, but on the other hand, whom [he] wishes, [he] hardens.q

19[Thou] ask me therefore, “WhyThis is probably an adverbial question (as rendered), but it could also be what, the object of μέμφεται (blame). {therefore} does [he] still blame?(find fault) For who stands against his purpose?” 20O man, on the contrary,Lit. on the one hand, therefore, at least; idiomatically, it suggests something like, That wrong thing I just said? The reality is this: who are thou, the [one] responding again to God? [Thou], as the formed [thing], do not say to the forming [one], “Why did [thou] make me thus,” [do thou]?r 21Or does the potter not have authority of the clays to make out of his mixture a vessel which [is] unto honor, on the one hand, but on the other, [does he not have authority to make a vessel] which [is] unto dishonor?t 22But if God, wishing to exhibit [his] wrath and to make known his power, bore, in much long-suffering, vessels of wrath,u having been equippedi.e., the vessels unto destruction, 23[did he not do so] alsosome manuscripts omit in order that [he] may make known the wealth of his glory upon vessels of pity, which [vessels] [he] prepared beforehand unto glory?v 24Which [vessels] also [he] called, us, not only out of Jews but also out of nations,or (peoples), but a different word from that translated “people” in vv25-26 25just as [it] also says in Hosea, “[I] will call the not-my-people my people and the not-beloved beloved;w 26and [it] will be [that], in the place where [it] was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ there [they] will be called sons of [the] living God.”x 27And Isaiah cries out over Israel, Ifa future more vivid conditional clause the number of the sons of Israel be just as the sand of the sea, the remnant will be saved; 28for [the] lord, completing and cutting short,some manuscripts: cutting short in (justice/righteousness); others: cutting short in justice because [the] word [was] cut altogether; one other: cutting short in justice because [the] word [was] shattered will make [his] word upon the earth.”y 29And just as Isaiah has said beforehand, “If [the] lord Sabaothfrom a Hebrew word, meaning “hosts” or “armies”; here, though undeclined, probably genitive, so of hosts had not left behind a seed for us, [we] would have become just as Sodom, and [we] would have been made just like Gomorrah.”z

30What therefore shall [we] say? That nations, the [ones] not pursuingThe verbs in this verse and verse 31 create images of pursuit and attainment; on the one hand, nations doing no pursuit at all capture justice through faith, but Israel, actively pursuing the law of justice, cannot reach it by that way. justice, caught justice, but the justice out of faith,aa 31but Israel, pursuing [the] law of justice, did not come first unto [the] law.ab 32On account of what? Because [Israel pursued it] not out of faith, but ashere, this carries the sense that pursuing from faith can succeed, but pursuing from works cannot: as if it could be caught out of works out of works;some manuscripts: works of [the] law [they] stumbled on the stone of stumbling,ac 33just as [it] has been written, “Behold, [I] place in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of scandal, and the [one] believingsome manuscripts: everyone believing upon it will not be dishonored.”ad

a verse 3: cf. Exodus 32:32
b Israelites, of whom…adoption as sons: cf. Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; 14:1-2
c out of whom…to the flesh: cf. Matthew 1:1-16; Luke 3:23-38
d the [one] being upon all: cf. John 1:1
e God blessed unto the ages: cf. Psalm 41:13; Romans 1:25
f But [it is]…fallen from God: cf. Numbers 23:19
g For not all…[are not] Israel: cf. Romans 2:28
h In Isaac a…called for you: Genesis 21:12
i verse 8: cf. Galatians 4:23
j At this time…be with Sarah: Genesis 18:10, 14
k verse 10: cf. Genesis 25:21
l The greater will…to the smaller: Genesis 25:23
m Jacob [I] loved…Esau [I] hated: Malachi 1:2-3
n [There is] not…come to be: cf. Deuteronomy 32:4
o [I] will show…[I] have pity: Exodus 33:19
p Unto this [thing]…all the earth: Exodus 9:16
q whom [he] wishes, [he] hardens: cf. Exodus 4:21; 7:3; 9:12; 14:4, 17
r [Thou], as the…thus,” [do thou]: cf. Isaiah 29:16; 45:9; Wisdom 12:12
s does the potter…of the clay: cf. Jeremiah 18:6
t to make out…[is] unto dishonor: cf. Wisdom 15:7
u bore, in much…vessels of wrath: cf. Jeremiah 50:25
v verse 23: cf. Ephesians 1:3-12
w [I] will call…the not-beloved beloved: Hosea 2:23
x verse 26: Hosea 1:10
y If the number…upon the earth: Isaiah 10:22-23; cf. Hosea 1:10
z If [the] lord…just like Gomorrah: Isaiah 1:9
aa verse 30: cf. Romans 10:20
ab verse 31: cf. Wisdom 2:11; Romans 10:2-3
ac [they] stumbled on…stone of stumbling: cf. Isaiah 8:14
ad Behold, [I] place…not be dishonored: Isaiah 28:16; cf. Romans 10:11; I Peter 2:6, 8

Romans 8

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page on that site.

1Now, then, nothing [is] a condemnation to the [ones] in Christ Jesus.some manuscripts: to the [ones] in Christ Jesus not walking according to flesh.; others: to the [ones] in Christ Jesus not walking according to flesh, but according to spirit. (cf. verse 4 below) 2For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesusa freed theesome manuscripts: me; others: us [on a particular occasion] from the law of error and of death.or, potentially, from the law of error and from death.b 3For [that was] the inability of the law, in which [the law] was feeble through the flesh,c [but] God, having sent [on a particular occasion] his own son in [the] likeness of a flesh of error, and forlit. around, but, in a sense, to gain; this usage comes from combat in which a prize was placed in the middle of a ring and contestants fought around it error,d condemned the error in the flesh, 4in order thatἵνα + subjunctive purpose clause the judgment of the law may be filled in us, the [ones] not walking according to flesh, but according to spirit.e 5For the [ones] being according to flesh are mindful of the [things] of the flesh, but on the other hand, the [ones] [being] according to spirit [are mindful] of the [things] of the spirit. 6For the mind of the flesh [is] death,f but the mind of the spirit [is] life and peace; 7because the mind of the flesh [is] enmity unto God,g for [it] is not subjected to([it] does not place [itself] under) the law of God, for neither does [it] have the power;lit. nor is [it] able [to do something]h 8but the [ones] being in flesh are not able to make amends to God. 9But you, on the other hand, are not in flesh, but in spirit, if indeed a spirit of God dwells in you.i But, on the other hand, if someone does not have a spirit of Christ, this [man] is not of him.i.e., Christj 10But if Christ [is] in you, on the one hand the body [is] dead on account of error, but on the other, the spirit [is] alive on account of justice.k 11But if the spirit of the [one] having awakened Jesus out of [the] dead dwells in you, the [one] having awakened Christ out of [the] dead will make alive also your mortal bodies through the indwelling of his spiritsome manuscripts: on account of his indwelling spirit in you.

12Then therefore, brothers, [we] are debtors, not to the flesh in order to live according to flesh,genitive articular infinitive of purposel 13for if [you] live according to flesh, [you] are destined to die, but if [you] put to death for [the] spirit the acts of the body, [you] will live.m 14For as many as are brought to a spirit of God, these are sons of God. 15For [you] did not seize a spirit of slavery again unto fear,n but [you] seized a spirit of adoption in which [we] cry out, “Abba!” [that is,] father.o 16The spirit itself testifies with our spirit that [we] are children of God.p 17But if [we are] children, [we are] also heirs; on the one hand heirs of God,q but on the other, co-heirs of Christ, if indeed [we] co-suffer in order thatἵνα + subjunctive purpose clause [we] may co-glorify.

18For [I] calculate(reckon) that the misfortunes of the now-time [are] not worthy(fit / meet) towardslit. face-to-face with [the fact] that the destined glory is revealed(uncovered) unto us.idiomatically, this is something like, in comparison with the revelation of destined glory.r 19For the longingIn this construction, this word (ἀποκαραδοκία) is fairly rare. It is derived from a verb that appears more often (ἀποκαραδοκέω). Commentators (such as Strong’s Concordance) break it down to ἀπό + κάρα + δοκέω, literally, “away from + head + to think.” This leads to a sense like, “to think away from the head,” or, “to be forward-thinking,” or even, “with head outstretched.”

This seems unlikely to me. καραδοκέω was a word dating back at least to Herodotus (c. 5th century BC) and meant “to wait for the head,” i.e., the conclusion of something. ἀποκαραδοκέω was used by Polybius (2nd century BC) and Josephus (1st century AD). The word ἀπό idiomatically means “fully” or “completely” in composite words; thus, the word emphasizes looking to the resolution of a thing, not really an immediate striving (as “with head outstretched” suggests).
of creation awaits anxiouslyhere and throughout, (expects eagerly) the revelation of the sons of God.s 20For creation was subjected to vanity, not [being] willing, but on account of the [one] having been subjected, upon hopet 21that also some manuscripts: subjected onto hope, because; others: subjected upon hope, and creation itself will be set free from the slavery of ruinu unto the freedom of the glory of the children of God.v 22For we know that all creation groans together and travails together even up to now; 23and not only [this], but also [we] ourselves, having the firstlingBecause of this word’s association with “first sacrifices,” it came to mean birth certificate; that may be the sense here. of the spirit, also we ourselves sigh in ourselves, awaiting anxiously adoption,some manuscripts omit this word the ransoming of our body.w 24For [we] were saved [on a particular occasion] (in / for / unto)Though all of the options listed are possible, this cannot mean that we were saved by hope. hope; but hope, being seen, is not hope;x for who hopes for what [he] sees?some manuscripts: what somebody sees, what does he hope for?; others: what somebody sees, does [he] also hope for?; others: what somebody sees, does [he] also await? 25But if [we] hope for what [we] do not see, through endurance [we] await [it] anxiously.

26And in just the same way, the spirit also helpslit. seizes against with, i.e., picks up with (though opposite), as perhaps with a large piece of furniture us with [our] weakness;as frequently, ἡμῶν is probably doing double-duty (being the object of “helps” and modifying “weakness”) for [we] do not know whatThis construction really emphasizes the ambiguity here; this is a very generic “what”; I imagine St. Paul’s eyes widening during this, accompanied by a hefty shrug. [we] should pray for,a deliberative independent subjunctive as far as [what] is needed, but the spirit itself intercedessome manuscripts: intercedes on behalf of us; others: meets on behalf of us (cf. v27 and v34 below) with unspeakable groans; 27but the [one] searching(seeking / searching for) the heartsy knows what the mind of the spirit [is], that(because) [the spirit] meets with GodLit. happens upon in accordance with God; idiomatically, may mean “pleads” or “meets” or even, in some cases, “intercedes” (the word here is the root of the one used in v26 above). But ἐντυγχάνω + κατά + accusative of something is a rare construction. Cf. Plutarch, Lycurgus 1.2: ἔνιοι δὲ καὶ κατ’ ὄψιν ἐντυχεῖν Ὁμήρῳ, “but some also [say] that [he] met with Homer in accordance with a face,” i.e., “face-to-face.” Contrast the lack of dative object in our passage, suggesting that κατὰ θεόν denotes the object of ἐντυγχάνει somehow. Thus, the sense is probably “meets” or “pleads” in the manner of God, but I like to think (however far-fetched) that the Trinity is textually implied (i.e., “God-to-God”). on behalf ofhere and throughout, lit. over holy [ones]. 28But [we] know that for the [ones] lovingfrom ἀγάπη God, all [things] work togethersome manuscripts: God works all [things] together; the singular verb here is not an indication of which manuscripts are correct, since, as usual, neuter plural subjects take singular verbs unto good,z for the [ones] being called(invited / chosen / welcome); compare ἐκκλησία (assembly / church) from the same root according to a purpose.lit. (public placement / public notice) 29Because [the ones] whom [he] knew beforehand, [he] also predetermined as conformed to the image of his son, in order that he may beεἰς + accusative + infinitive purpose clause [the] first-born among many brothers;aa 30and [the ones] whom [he] predetermined,for this and all the verbs in this verse, [on a particular occasion] these also [he] called; and [the ones] whom [he] called, these also [he] justified; and [the ones] whom [he] justified, these also [he] glorified.

31What therefore shall [we] say toward these [things]? If God [is] forlit. over us,ab who [is] againstlit. down upon us? 32For [the one] who at least did not spare his own son, but handed him over on behalf of us all, how will [he] not also, together with him,i.e., the son grace us with all [things]?technically, all [things] is the direct object and us is the indirect object, but this construction better represents the verb in Englishac 33Who will bring charges against [the] chosenlit. elect [ones] of God? The [one] judging [is] God;some manuscripts: [Is] the [one] judging [us] God? 34some manuscripts pose the second half of this verse as a question, i.e., [Is it] Christ Jesus…?who [is] the [one] condemning [us]? Christ {Jesus},some manuscripts: Christ; others: but at the same time, Christ {Jesus} the [one] having died, but more, having been roused, who also is in [the] right hand of God,ad who also meets [with God] on behalf of 35Who will separate us from the love of Christ?some manuscripts: of God; others: of God, the [love] in Christ Jesus (cf. v39 below) Pressure or a strait or pursuit or famine or nakedness or danger or a sword? 36Just as [it] has been written,af that: “On account of thee [we] are being put to death for the whole day,accusative of duration of time [we] were counted(reckoned) just as cattle for a slaughter.” 37But in all these [things] we over-conquer through the [one] having lovedfrom ἀγάπη us [on a particular occasion].ag 38For [I] have been persuaded that neither death nor life nor angels nor rulers nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined nor powerssome manuscripts: nor powers nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined; others: nor powers nor [things] having been instituted nor heights; others: nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined; others: nor authorities nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined nor powers; others: nor authorities nor powers nor [things] having been instituted nor [things] being destined 39nor heights nor depth nor any other creation has power to separate us from the love of God, the [love] in Christ Jesus our lord.

a For the law…in Christ Jesus: cf. Romans 3:27
b verse 2: cf. Romans 7:23-24
c For [that was]…through the flesh: cf. Acts 13:38; 15:10
d God, having sent…and for error: cf. John 1:14; Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:17; 4:15
e us, the [ones]…according to spirit: cf. Galatians 5:16, 25
f For the mind…flesh [is] death: cf. Romans 6:21; 7:5; 8:13
g because the mind…enmity unto God: cf. James 4:4
h for [it] is…have the power: cf. Matthew 12:34; John 8:43; 12:39
i a spirit of…dwells in you: cf. I Corinthians 3:16
j But, on the…not of him: cf. I Corinthians 12:3
k verse 10: cf. Galatians 2:20; I Peter 4:6
l verse 12: cf. Romans 6:7, 18
m verse 13: cf. Galatians 6:8
n For [you] did…again unto fear: cf. II Timothy 1:7
o but [you] seized…[that is,] father: cf. Mark 14:36; Galatians 4:5-6
p verse 16: cf. II Corinthians 1:22
q But if [we…heirs of God: cf. Galatians 4:7; Revelation 21:7
r verse 18: cf. II Corinthians 4:17
s the revelation of…sons of God: cf. Colossians 3:4
t verse 20: cf. Genesis 3:17-19; 5:29; Ecclesiastes 1:2
u creation itself will…slavery of ruin: cf. II Peter 3:13
v the glory of…children of God: cf. I John 3:2
w verse 23: cf. II Corinthians 5:2-4; Galatians 5:5
x For [we] were…is not hope: cf. II Corinthians 5:7
y but the [one]…searching the hearts: cf. Psalm 139:1; I Corinthians 4:5
z for the [ones]…together unto good: cf. Ephesians 1:11; 3:11
aa first-born among many brothers: cf. Colossians 1:18; Hebrews 1:6
ab If God [is] for us: cf. Psalm 118:6
ac how will [he]…with all [things]: cf. John 3:16
ad who also is…hand of God: cf. Psalm 110:1
ae who also meets…behalf of us: cf. I John 2:1
af written: Psalm 44:22; cf. II Corinthians 4:11
ag verse 37: cf. John 16:33

Romans 7

This is a literal translation of an ancient Greek text. It has also been cross-posted on For more information on how to read this post and what everything means, see the relevant page on that site.

1Or do [you] not perceive, brothers—for [I] speak [to those who] know law—that the law is lord of a person for as long a time as [he] lives? 2For the marriedlit. under-a-man woman has been bound by law to the living man; but if, on the other hand, the man dies, [she] has been left free here and in verse 6, lit. left idlefrom the law of the man. 3Then, therefore, with the man living, if [she] comes to be with a different man, [she] operates asidiomatically, is called adulterous; but if, on the other hand, the man dies, [she] is free from the law, in order that [she] may not bearticular infinitive in the genitive showing purpose adulterous, having come to be with a different man. 4And so, my brothers, you also were put to death ὥστε + indicative verb is a result clauseto the law through the body of Christ,a in order that you may come to be with another,lit. a different [one]εἰς + articular infinitive usually expresses purpose, but may also express result; in this case, the alternative translation would be: so that you come to be with another [that is,] with the [one] having been awakened out of [the] dead, in order that [we] may bear fruit for God. 5For when [we] were in the flesh, the misfortunes of the errors,here and throughout, (sins) the [misfortunes] through the law, were being energizedAs is typical, here we have a neuter plural subject (παθήματα, misfortunes) taking a singular verb (ἐνηργεῖτο). in our limbs, in order to bear fruit for death;b 6but now, on the other hand, [we] were left free from the law,c [we] dying in that with which [we] were being held back, so that we are slaves ὥστε + accusative-infinitive clause, indicating resultin a newness of spirit and not [in] an antiquity of writing.(letter)d

7What, therefore, shall [we] say? The law [is] an error? May [it] not come to be; but [I] would not know the error if not through law;In this clause and immediately following, these conditionals are simple past conditionals. Because of the negative construction, the difference in English between this and a counterfactual conditional is minimal. for [I] would also not know the desire (coveting)if the law did not say, “Thou will not desire.”(covet)e 8But the error, having seized a starting point through the commandment, works athere and throughout, (achieves by labor) every desire in me; for apart from [the] law, error [is] dead.f 9But I was living apart from [the] law then, but with the commandment having come, the error returned to life, 10but I died, and it was found [that] for me, the commandment, the [one] unto life,g this [one] [was] unto death; 11for the error, having seized a starting point through the commandment, deceived meh and, through it,i.e., the commandment [the error] killed [me]. 12And so the law [on the one hand] [is] holy and the commandment [is] holy and just and good.i

13Therefore did the good [thing] for me become death [for me]? May [it] not come to be; but [it was] the error, in order that [it] may appear as error, through the good [thing] working at death for me, in order that the error may become surpassingly lit. according to an overthrowingerroneous through the commandment.j 14For we knowSome manuscripts: on the one hand, [I] know; this differs from the text as given by a space between letters that the law is spiritual, but on the other hand, I am fleshy, having been sold under the error.This construction could also mean that the error is the agent of the sale, i.e., that Paul was sold by the errork 15For what [I] work at, [I] do not know; for what [I] want, this [I] do not achieve, but what [I] hate, this [I] do. 16But if [I] do not do this [thing] which [I] want, [I] consent to the law that [it is] beautiful. 17But now, I no longer work at it, but the error dwelling in me [works at it]. 18For [I] know that a good [thing] does not dwell in me, that is, in my flesh;l for the wishing is close at handhere and in verse 21, (available) for me, but on the other hand, working at the beautiful [thing] [is] not [close at hand];Some manuscripts: [I] do not know [how to work at the beautiful thing]; others: [I] do not find [working at the beautiful thing] 19for [I] do not do a good [thing] which [I] want, but [I] achieve this bad [thing] which [I] do not want. 20But if [I] do this [thing] which ISome manuscripts omit do not want, I no longer work at it, but the error dwelling in me. 21[I] find, then, the law, for me, wanting to do the beautiful [thing], that for me the bad [thing] is close at hand; 22for [I] rejoice together with the law of God Some manuscripts: of the mind; others omitaccording to the interior person, 23but [I] see a different law in my limbs, warring against the law of my mindm and taking me prisoner in the law of the error, the [law] being in my limbs. 24I [am] a miserable person; who will save(set free); lit. protect / cover me out the body of this death?or this body of death; word placement suggests the translation as given, but this alternative sounds more natural in English and may still get the point across 25But grace [be] to God through Jesus Christ our lord.Some manuscripts: [there is] the grace of God through Jesus Christ our lord; others: [there is] the grace of [the] lord through Jesus Christ our lord; others: grace to our lord Jesus Christ; others: [I] give thanks to God through Jesus Christ our lord.n Then, therefore, I myself am a slave to [the] law of God in my mind on the one hand, but on the other hand [I am a slave] to [the] law of error in my flesh.

a And so, my…body of Christ: cf. Colossians 2:14
b in order to…fruit for death: cf. Romans 5:21; 8:6, 13
c but now, on…from the law: cf. Romans 8:2
d so that we…antiquity of writing: cf. Romans 6:4
e Thou will not desire: cf. Exodus 20:17; Deuteronomy 5:21; 4 Maccabees 2:5; Romans 13:9
f for apart from…error [is] dead: cf. Romans 5:13
g the commandment, the…[one] unto life: cf. Leviticus 18:5
h for the error…commandment, deceived me: cf. Genesis 3:13; Hebrews 3:13
i verse 12: cf. I Timothy 1:8
j [it was] the…through the commandment: cf. Romans 5:20
k I am fleshy…under the error: cf. Psalm 51:5; John 3:6
l For [I] know…in my flesh: cf. Genesis 6:5; 8:21
m a different law…of my mind: cf. Galatians 5:7; James 4:1; I Peter 2:11
n But grace [be]…Christ our lord: cf. I Corinthians 15:57